Diabetes or blood sugar is a disease caused by the increased presence of glucose in our blood. Blood glucose is the main source of our energy and insulin, a hormone created by the pancreas is responsible to help the glucose from food to get into our cells to be used as energy. When this pancreas does not function properly and a useful amount of insulin is not produced, that glucose remains in our blood and does not reach our cells.
This presence of excess glucose in our blood causes serious health issues and there is practically no cure for diabetes but there are ways to control diabetes and maintain proper health. Here we will discuss all types of diabetes, their symptoms, and how to control them.
Types of diabetes:
Type 1 Diabetes: It is an autoimmune disease also known as juvenile diabetes where the body destroys the cells of the pancreas that produces insulin. Due to this disease, we completely become dependent on artificial insulin for our survival. This type of diabetes can affect any person of any age.
Type 2 Diabetes: Due to this diabetes our body becomes resistant to insulin despite our pancreas producing insulin resulting is a high amount of glucose in our blood. This is the most common type of insulin and it most often occurs to middle-aged or older people.
Gestational diabetes: This diabetes occurs in women when they are pregnant because of an insulin blocking hormone produced by the placenta. However, this gets cured after the delivery of the child.
Symptoms of Type 1:
- Increase in hunger
- Feeling thirsty more frequently
- Increase in frequency of urination
- Damaged vision
- Mood swings
Symptoms of Type 2:
Same symptoms as Type 1 diabetes with one different symptom – frequent infection, cuts taking a long time to heal. This is because of the high glucose presence which prevents the body from healing.
Special symptoms in men:
- Decreased sex drive
- Erectile dysfunction
- A decrease in muscle strength
Special symptoms in women:
- Infection in the urinary tract
- Dry irritated skin
Type 1: There is no reason yet discovered by doctors why our body suddenly attacks the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas and destroys them. It might be because of genetic disorders or any virus that triggers our immune system.
Type 2: Genetic factors, lifestyle, obesity influences the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes.
Gestational: It is caused by hormonal changes during pregnancy because of some insulin inhibiting hormone produced by the placenta. Overweight pregnant women become more inclined to gestational diabetes.
Risk factors faced:-
Certain factors increase your risk of having diabetes.
Mainly genetic, if your parents have diabetes then you are also likely to have diabetes.
- More than 45 years of age
- Highly inactive lifestyle
- Already have blood pressure
- High cholesterol levels
- More than 25 years of age
- Having polycystic ovary syndrome
- Parents have any type of diabetes
- Baby weighing over 9 pounds
Other health complications:
- Heart stoke
- Kidney failure
- Cataract and retinopathy or loss of vision
- Poor dental health
- Loss of hearing
- Bacterial, fungal infections on the skin
Other health complications due to gestational diabetes:
Gestational diabetes if not treated on time can cause serious issues to the mother and child. It can cause:
- Premature birth
- Overweight child
- The child becomes prone to diabetes
Doctors suggest a proper diet to be taken on time, exercise and changing bad lifestyles to fight diabetes. These are the natural ways to keep ourselves healthy without taking strong medicines, injections, or drugs.
Type 1: Injecting artificial insulin into our body is the only way to fight type 1 diabetes. There are a few different types of insulin differentiated by two factors – how quickly they start to work and how long they work.
Rapid-acting insulin: it is the fastest acting insulin that starts working within fifteen minutes and lasts up to two to three hours.
Short-acting insulin: it starts working with thirty minutes and last up to six to eight hours
Intermediate-acting insulin: it starts working within an hour or two and lasts almost eighteen hours.
Long-acting insulin: it starts working slowly but lasts up to twenty-four hours or more.
Type 2: Proper diet with regular exercise and having a healthy lifestyle can help cure type 2 diabetes. If not cured then one must consult with the doctor and take medications and drugs according to his advice. People affected by this type also take insulin.
Gestational: Having a very strict diet can prevent gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Keeping a strict check on blood sugar levels is very necessary.
Exercise is very important no matter what type of diabetes one has because exercise improves our body’s use of insulin and helps lowering blood sugar levels. However, if somebody feels hypoglycemia (lowering of blood sugar levels) then he/she must eat a carbohydrate snack before exercising.
Diabetes patients have high chances of having a heart attack thus exercising is very important because it improves blood circulation in our body. Moderate physical activities like walking are highly recommended for older people who cannot undergo heavy exercise.
Healthy eating is the most vital part of controlling diabetes.
Type 1: The blood sugar levels in our blood highly depends on the type of food we intake. If we have food that contains a high amount of sugar then our blood sugar level will rapidly increase. Proteins and fats cause a gradual increase in blood sugar levels and doctors recommend having a very little amount of carbohydrates each day.
Type 2: It is recommended to have more amount of fruits, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, fish, and healthy fats of olive oil and nuts. These foods will help to lose weight and control blood sugar levels in our blood.
Gestational: Eating balanced food is important for the health of both mother and the baby. Having a limited amount of sugary and salty food is recommended.
Focus on essential vitamins :
Vitamin C makes up for low insulin levels, maintains a good cholesterol level, and keeps blood sugar under control.
Magnesium helps control blood sugar levels by enhancing the action of insulin.
Vitamin E protects the kidney from getting damaged, protects the eyes, and blood vessels.
Thus we see that diabetes is practically incurable, but by having a healthy lifestyle and a healthy diet we can fight diabetes.